The Islamic Ideology

The most factor in the construction of Pakistan’s Islamic orientation is Islamic ideology. The state was founded on the name of Islam, and designated as a place where the Muslims of the subcontinent could practice their religion freely. IN the founding of  Pakistan Movement and his ‘Great Leader’ and extensive Islamic ideological discourse. However there is contrast between Jinnah’s pre-independence post-independence speeches, and this clearly demonstrates that for him at least, Islamic ideology mostly a community’,10 not an Islamic state in practice which would be based on and defined by Islamic ideology ,ethics and morals. His pre-impendence use of Islamic discourse was intended to mobilize popular support. Jinnah himself was highly westernised and secular but this did not stop him using Islamic ideology discourse.

The mobilization of Muslim mass mobilization followed in the footsteps of early ideological movements, and in particular the Syed ahmad shah barelwi, and the khilafat(khilafa or caliphate) movement of the 1920s, which struggled to achieve protection of the ottoman caliphate.the man who might be rightfully considered the the ideological founder of Pakistan, Muhammad iqbal, supported pan Islamic movements such as the khalifa movement. Jinnah however dismissed the khalifa movement early in his career as ‘religious frenzy’11but he later used extensive Islamic ideological discourse to promote the cause of Pakistan nonetheless. In short, he was working to accumulate the political capital of Indian Muslims by playing the Islamic card, while presumably hoping to control the outcome and achieve the kind of state he envisaged himself.

After independence there was a almost a u-turn in Jinnah’s thinking-or perhaps rather, his thinking remained consistent but the way he chose to convey it changed dramatically. this is perhaps best shown in his famous 1947 speech in which he stated that ‘you may belong to any religion, caste and creed; that has nothing to do with business of the state….you will find that in the course of time Hindu would ease to be Hindus and Muslims would ease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of the individual, but in the political sense as the citizen of the state. ‘This was in complete contrast to, for example, a pre independence speech in which he stated that ‘the Quran is complete code for the Muslims- a religious, social, civil, commercial, military, judicial and criminal and penal code. it regulates everything12.the implication here was that Pakistan would be an Islamic ideological state, based on complete sharia model and inspired by Islamic ethic.

The Islamic fervour of the independence movement to be needed to be continued into an Islamic fervour that would recruit thousands of Muslim tribal men to fight for the state. They did so under the command of General Tariq in Kashmir (this was the nom de guerre of General Akbar, after the famous Muslim commander Tariq bin ziyad, who established Muslim Andalusia).13 India was presented as an anti-Islamic force.very soon pakistan started to promot pan islamic policies, with the objective of reinforcing its diffrence from india and consolidating its position as one of the world’s leading Muslim states. To position the country thus in the world at large was also designed to gain economic benefits.Pakistan convened a world muslim conference in karachi in 1949,which eventually led to the creation of motamar al-alam al-islami(the mulim world congress).The president of  Pakistan’s muslim league even declared that pakistan would bring all muslim countries together in to”islamistan’, a single islamic entity.13 Pakistan continued using an islamic orientation and pan-islamic policies with a view to obtaining economic or stratgic advantage throughout the 1960s and 1970s and well into the period of the afghan jihad.

To conclude, although islamic ideology might have been used as a means and not an end before the independence era, it ended up being an end and not just a means.It has provided both the political and military establishments with a vehicle to achieve domestic, regional and global agendas.This seesaw between means and ends left wide open the all-important question of what it really means to be an islamic state.While Islamic ideology was being’rediscovered’ by the ruling elite as a possible cure for all pakistan’s domestic,regional and global problems,civel society,the intelligensia and the genral public embraced the early rise of jama’at-e-islami(ji),which came out from its pathankot seclusion to act as a vanguard of the thrust towards islamic ideology and a watchdog to the newly founded pakistani society.

Comparitively, India himself declared as secular state and democracy as a political system even that Hindus are in majority and the national religon also hindu.


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